Traditionally, a typical phase II trial has been conducted using a single-arm design recruiting patients only to the experimental therapy to be compared with a historical control. Due to a small sample size and heterogeneity of patient population, the patient characteristics of the patients in a new phase II trial is often different from that of the selected historical control, so that the single-arm phase II trial may lead to biased conclusions. A randomized phase II trial can resolve such problems by randomizing patients between an experimental arm and a control arm. We propose a software package for designing and analyzing randomized phase II trials. We develop a user-friendly Java software that will help us find optimal two-stage phase II trial designs. Although the programs accommodate trial designs based on various statistical methods and different types of early stopping rules, the main part of our paper is focused on randomized phase II trials based on Fisher’s exact test with futility and superiority early stopping values. If users enter input parameter values, the software generates a graphical output displaying all efficient two-stage designs. Minimax, optimal, and admissible designs are highlighted as good designs, but users can select any of the displayed designs. When the circle representing a design is clicked, all the specifics of the selected design are displayed. Fisher’s test is an exact method whose critical values depend on the total number of responders from two arms. So, the computations required to search for optimal randomized multi-stage phase II trial designs based on Fisher’s exact test is very heavy. By using efficient algorithms, our software provides output at almost real time speed
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Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work . Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals , many, but not all of which are addictive . The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol . Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals , however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape . Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) . Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent . This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
Characterization of Indigenous Goats Type Using Morphological Characters in South West Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia.
This study was conducted in South west Shewa zone, to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in Tole and Becho districts. Morphological and Linear body measurement were carried out to collect necessary raw data during the current study. Morphological characters and linear body measurements were collected from a total of 460 adult goats. Data collected from each site were coded and entered into the computer (Excel 2016 and SPSS, V21, 2013) computer software to facilitate for further analysis. Data collected through Morphological and linear body measurements were analyzed using (SPSS, V21, 2013 and SAS, release 9.2, 2008). Most frequently observed coat color pattern in study was plain 62.8%. Multiple correlations between body weight and linear body measurements were computed for the population within each sex and correlations among body weight and linear body measurements were positive for both sexes. The strong, positive and significant correlation between heart girth and body weight was observed (r = 0.97, 0.93) for male and female population, respectively. Generally, this study was aim to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in the study area. The Most observed body color type was plain in the study area so its need investigation because farmers need plain color rather others.