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Recent Articles

Evaluation of Calcitriol Administration Against Apoptotic Markers in Ischemic Stroke

Background: Ischemic stroke is one of the most dangerous health issues that leads to neuronal cell death through various mechanisms including, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) play an important role against ischemic stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was evaluating the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 administration on the activity of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK apoptotic proteins. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 38 eligible patients were recruited and then were divided into two control and experimental groups. A single oral dose of 10μg 1,25(OH)2D3 was given to experimental group and 4ml of blood samples were collected from all subjects. After isolation of leukocytes from blood samples of patients, flow cytometry was used to investigate the proteins expression of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK. Results: Our data revealed that the activity of Calpain1, Caspase 3 and JNK were significantly decreased after the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 in ischemic stroke. Conclusion: Based on our findings, calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) could be considered as a protective approach against ischemic stroke by reducing the activity of apoptotic proteins.

Biomarkers of Microbial Dysbiosis as Causative Agent of Acute Diarrhea in Dogs

Dysbiosis is microbial imbalance and mostly common in gastrointestinal tract [1]. There is a significant different of microbial communities in diarrheic cases more than healthy dogs’ comparison of gender & clinical signs. Clostridium species is mostly commonly genus found infectious animal cases of diarrhea and moreover in dog in other hand unclassified genus of Ruminococcaceae Bacteroidetes and Faecali bacterium were isolated. The microbiome functional gene content of (PICRUSt) with elevation gastric enzymes & increase titers infra structural proteins in acute diarrhea. Studies and data for dysbiosis with different intestinal disorders in dog associated with acute diarrhea or chronic is very limited. Current study to evaluate microbial dysbiosis. The fecal microbiome, characterized by 655 pyrosequencing of the different genes, AU/CG. There was lower range of bacterial isolates from cases of acute diarrhea compared to animal variation with statistical analysis. Altered microbial imbalance in gut occur with the microbial communities for gastric infection.

Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.

Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.