The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the micro hardness of enamel exposed to the erosive effects of three pre-workout drinks. Forty blocks (4mmx4mm) of bovine enamel were randomly selected and divided among the following pre-workout drinks (n=10): G1: Universal Shock Therapy®, G2: 1.M.R Vortex™, G3: Jack3Dmicro™, G4: Control (distilled water). The enamel microhardness was evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) the in vitro erosive test (5 min/3 times/5 days) using a Vickers digital microduremeter (load 100g/penetration 15s). The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, ±sd) and for comparison testing, using the Kruskall Wallis test and the t Student test (p≤ 0.05). All groups showed a reduction in micro hardness after the erosive test (p =0.001).1.M.R Vortex™ drink showed a large decrease in micro hardness (%SMH:34,92%). Pre-workout drinks significantly decreased the superficial micro hardness of enamel
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Demographic and Socioeconomic Influence on Antenatal Care Utilization Among Pregnant Women in Wa Municipality of The Upper West Region of Ghana
Introduction: It remains unclear if benefits of antenatal care can be attributed to the amount and content of care or to uncontrolled risk factors that might also affect its use. An understanding of the factors influencing antenatal care is still a challenge because the pathways through which the effects are obtained remain elusive. Objective: The study examined the factor influencing antenatal care utilisation in the Wa Municipality. Methodology and Data: The study employed a retrospective cohort design. The probability proportionate to size sampling was used to select the sub-district health catchment facilities, while the systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. Data was collected from 353 women based on the status of Antenatal care utilization. Results: The results suggest that the educational status, maternal knowledge on adequacy of four or more antenatal care, score for general services received, number of tetanus toxoid doses received and anaemia status at Antenatal care registration were significant predictors to adequate antenatal care utilization. Conclusion: The study further found that women who had anaemia at antenatal care registration, General quality of received women received at antenatal care, level of Tetanus doses as well as knowledge on the adequacy of antenatal care were significant factors that influence antenatal care usage among reproductive aged women in the Wa municipality. The implication is that, attention should be drawn by health management authorities to ensure an improvement in the coverage antenatal care in Wa Municipal while health staff are encouraged to enforce to the latter all due protocols in the discharge of their duties at antenatal care utilisation in Ghana
Pancreatic cancer carries one of the worst prognoses in the United States. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and second after colorectal cancer in digestive system cancer-related death. Early detection is the key to improving its prognosis. Surgical resection is the only curative treatment, but even after margin-negative resection, the 5-year survival rate is still 30%. The following case presents a fascinating diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Despite an initial diagnosis of pancreatitis, negative cytology, tumor markers, and imaging suggestive of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), this patient underwent surgical resection that later revealed pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the tail. This article highlights certain imaging modalities and characteristics that are essential in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, in an effort to guide management of similar cases, with hope it leads to better outcomes.
This study reports the adsorption capacity of copper Cu (II) and nickel Ni (II) of biochar obtained from peanut shell. The kinetics and equilibrium of biosorption were examined in detail. Two kinetic models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order) were used to correlate the experimental data and to determine the kinetic parameters. Two well-known adsorption isotherms were chosen to describe the biosorption equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich). The equilibrium isotherms showed that modified peanut shells possess high affinity, sorption capacity for Cu (II) and Ni (II) ions, sorption capacities of 37.443 mg/g Cu (II) and 28.626 mg/g Ni (II) biomass, respectively. All results showed that peanut shells biomass is an attractive, alternative low-cost bio sorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media, therefore biomass materials find good application prospects.